Civil War Battlefield Preservation at South Mountain

Civil War Battlefield Preservation at South Mountain

Battle of Fox’s Gap Preservation Effort

The Civil War Trust [CWT] has a remarkable opportunity to purchase the 45 acres of Wise’s Field at Fox’s Gap where a tremendous battle took place on September 14, 1862. The carnage during the fight for control of the gaps on Maryland’s South Mountain was a precursor to the Battle of Sharpsburg [Antietam] three days later. Through Federal matching grants the CWT needs to raise $112,500 by March 31, 2014 to preserve this Hallowed Ground.

The 50th Georgia’s baptism of fire came while fighting in Wise’s Field. There, the regiment suffered “an astonishing 86 percent casualty rate, more than it would experience in any other single battle of the war.” Two generals would be killed in action near this field – Confederate brigadier general Samuel Garland and Union major general Jesse Reno.

Angle Valley Press published Jim Parrish’s critically acclaimed Wiregrass to Appomattox: The Untold Story of the 50th Georgia Infantry Regiment in 2008. To support the CWT effort, Angle Valley Press will donate $5 for every copy of Jim’s book ordered through our website’s book order page. These books will all be signed by the author and come to you with free shipping/handling. All of the below excerpts come from Wiregrass to Appomattox as the Georgians found themselves surrounded on three sides at Wise’s Field.

At about 4 pm, the men in the green 50th and 51st Georgia regiments moved across Wise’s Field to a position along the Old Sharpsburg Road. As they executed the movement “they came under heavy fire from a portion of Brigadier General Orlando  B. Wilcox’s division.” Troops in the 79th New York and the 17th Michigan poured a horrendous enfilade fire into the Rebels.  

“In the sunken road [Old Sharpsburg Rd.] the dead and wounded piled up as volley after volley of enemy fire continued to rake the huddled Georgians.” The 50th Georgia’s lieutenant Peter McGlashan noted “‘the slaughter was horrible,’” while another officer referred to the spot as “‘a slaughter pen.’”  Then the 17th Michigan came out of the woods at charge bayonet and smashed into the 50th Georgia’s exposed left flank and rear. Lieutenant McGlashan described the carnage: “‘When ordered to retreat I could scarce extricate myself from the dead and wounded around me. A man could have walked from the head of our line to the foot on their bodies.’”

“One final tragic insult was heaped upon the many seriously wounded and dead from the 50th Georgia and 51st Georgia regiments as they lay in the Old Sharpsburg Road. Private George Hitchcock of the 21st Massachusetts described the horrible scene: “‘The sunken road is literally packed with dead and dying rebels who had held so stubbornly the pass against our troops who have resistlessly swept up over the hill. Here the horrors of war were revealed as [we] see our heavy ammunition wagons go tearing up, right over the dead and dying, mangling many in their terrible course. The shrieks of the poor fellows were heartrending.’”

Color Sergeant George Fahm from Thomas County, Georgia reflected on his good fortune to escape. He noted that the other eight members of the 50th Georgia color guard were shot down while “‘the flag, flag-staff, clothing, cap and blanket of the color bearer (myself) showed thirty-two bullet holes, and yet most strangely to relate, I did not receive a scratch in that battle.’”

The fighting on South Mountain continued until after dark. “That night, Robert E. Lee reluctantly decided to abandon his position on South Mountain and withdraw his troops before daylight the next morning. He would move west across Antietam Creek to a better defensive position along the heights around Sharpsburg.”

The stage was now set for an even bigger collision on September 17 at a small Maryland town named Sharpsburg. “All of the dead and many of the seriously wounded Confederates from South Mountain had to be left on the battlefield when Lee withdrew back to Sharpsburg. Those wounded who could not escape were captured and taken to Federal hospitals in the area. The hard and rocky soil made the gruesome job of disposing of Confederate dead a difficult one for Union burial details. In one instance, Federals unceremoniously dumped the bodies of fifty-eight Rebels into an unfinished well on Daniel Wise’s property. In 1874, the remains of 2,240 Southern soldiers were relocated to the Confederate Section of Rose Hill Cemetery at Hagerstown, Maryland. A plaque lists the names of those few soldiers who could be identified, but the vast majority are unknown.”

All above quotes from Wiregrass to Appomattox: The Untold Story of the 50th Georgia by James W. Parrish, 2008, Angle Valley Press,   www.AngleValleyPress.com

 

Civil War Trust to Preserve 45 acres at South Mountain

Angle Valley Press is excited to see that Civil War Trust CWT has established a campaign to preserve 45 acres at Fox’s Gap on South Mountain [MD] where significant fighting took place on September 14, 1862. Jim Parrish who authored Wiregrass to Appomattox: The Untold Story of the 50th Georgia Infantry Regiment noted that this battle was the 50th Georgia’s baptism of fire. The precise field where these Georgians found themselves surrounded on three sides by Federal troops is the precise property being preserved through this CWT campaign. For more info see the Civil War Trust website. This acreage is truly Hallowed Ground. We want to support the CWT in this effort so we will donate $5 from every copy of Wiregrass to Appomattox purchased from the Angle Valley Press website or via mail order. Your order will also be inscribed by Jim Parrish. More will follow here outlining the vicious fighting that took place that day at Fox’s Gap.

 

Picket Duty During a Deep Freeze in 1862

Picket Duty During a Deep Freeze in 1862

Picket Duty During a Deep Freeze

By John Fox

If you want to really know what thoughts, ideas and feelings rambled around in the minds of people from the past then the best place to begin is their letters, diaries and period newspapers. These are called primary sources. The problem though is that too many authors/historians today are too lazy to track down primary sources and they rely on secondary sources which is how a lot of nonsensical “history” (fabrication) gets passed down.

As the bone-chilling cold continues to cover the Shenandoah Valley I thought back to a an account written by Sam Watkins from his famous book “Co. Aytch” which details his life during the War Between the States while he served as a private in the 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment. The below account comes from pg 62 of the book and Watkins recorded his sentiments during the first week of January 1862 when he went to relieve a picket detail early in the morning prior to sunrise as the temperature hovered near 0 F. The 1st Tennessee was part of Stonewall Jackson’s Romney Campaign and the sad scene took place near Bath, Virginia which is now Berkeley Springs, West Virginia just north of Winchester.

“At a little village called Hampshire Crossing, our regiment was ordered to go to a little stream called St. John’s Run, to relieve the 14th Georgia Regiment and the 3rd Arkansas. I cannot tell the facts as I desire to. In fact my hand trembles so, and my feelings are so overcome, that it is hard for me to write at all. But we went to the place that we were ordered to go to, and when we arrived there we found the guard sure enough. If I remember correctly, there were just eleven of them. Some were sitting down and some were lying down; but each and every one was as cold and as hard frozen as the icicles that hung from their hands and clothing – dead! They had died at their post of duty. Two of them, a little in advance of the others, were standing with their guns in their hands, as cold and as hard frozen as a monument of marble – standing sentinel with loaded guns in their frozen hands! The tale is told. Were they true men?”

[“Co. Aytch”: A Side Show of the Big Show, by Sam R. Watkins, originally published 1952 by McCowat Mercer Press and reprinted 1987 by Broadfoot Publishing Co., p. 62]

ANGLE VALLEY PRESS CHRISTMAS SPECIAL CIVIL WAR BOOK SALE

ANGLE VALLEY PRESS CHRISTMAS SPECIAL CIVIL WAR BOOK SALE

*CHRISTMAS SPECIAL*stuarts_finest_hour

ALL Mail or AVP website Hardback Book purchases at regular price in December 2013 will receive 50% OFF any other AVP book  & receive FREE bookmark noted below.
FREE COLOR LAMINATED CIVIL WAR HERO BOOKMARK W/  EACH BOOK PURCHASED at regular price while supplies last!

All books author signed with FREE SHIPPING/HANDLING & NO TAX!!!!!!!

 THIS IS A HUGE VALUE SO PASS IT ON TO CIVIL WAR FRIENDS!

*****IF website does not indicate discount sale you will be issued a REBATE check with your book shipment

Support Your Small Publisher – Not the Amazon Squeeze

Support Your Small Publisher – Not the Amazon Squeeze

Support Your Small Publisher – Not the Amazon Squeeze

By John Fox

Angle Valley Press will celebrate its 10th anniversary next May. I am very proud of the books that this little company has put together over the years and I hope many of you have enjoyed reading them too.

My goal has always been to find authors who have uncovered new stories about the Civil War and then to work with them to put together a pleasing package for you, the reader. What is my definition of a “pleasing package?” First of all an interesting, well-written story accompanied by plenty of pertinent images that have captions. Next come professionally drawn maps that are related to the narrative, not some generic miniature map copied out of somebody else’s book. One of my big pet peeves is trying to read a battlefield narrative and flipping pages looking for a nonexistent map or finding a map that I need my cheaters, a magnifying glass and a microscope to understand.

While the manuscript is being edited [also professionally] copies are sent to several Civil War historians for their feedback. At the same time, a graphic designer is working on several different views for the dust jacket and the best looking jacket design is then selected. After all this is accomplished, then it is time for the interior book design to begin. Again we hire professionals to do this. You ever see a book with screwy looking font and unusual gaps and spaces on some pages? It screams amateur.  The final stage is getting the book printed which can be a time consuming process.

My point in describing this here is that time and quality mean money. Because I believe that a book is forever, Angle Valley Press will only produce quality professional books. This means that our books are expensive to produce because we do small print runs of 2000 to 3000 copies. You might wonder why we don’t print more copies which would reduce our per book production cost? Good question and the answer is that we have a small marketing budget and the more copies we print then the more we pay in storage costs at our distribution warehouse in Ohio.

There have been many changes in the book industry in the past ten years, some good and some bad. My distribution arrangement represents my biggest monthly cost. My distributor [who will remain anonymous] stores our books and then ships them to the “book trade” as orders come in. Most of the “book trade” represents book wholesalers like Ingram and Baker & Taylor who receive orders from independent bookstores and then order our books from our Ohio distributor.

For Angle Valley Press to have our books available throughout the country then we have to give a significant 50% to 55% discount to the wholesalers [middle men]. But because of this discount the wholesalers pay for the shipping. My distributor then hits me with an additional 18% charge on the net. This has generated some heartburn but up to this time has been acceptable.

However, just recently Amazon has decided to act like the 800-pound gorilla and change the rules. My Ohio distributor ships a lot of our books directly to Amazon. Even though Amazon receives a 55% discount they recently decided to charge the small publisher for shipping. Why? I guess because they can. This will place a significant squeeze on Angle Valley Press. Amazon has already forced many independent bookstores to go down the drain and now I wonder what this will do to all the small publishers.

Amazon Anaconda Squeezes Life Out of Worlds Largest Rodent

Amazon Anaconda Squeezes Life Out of Worlds Largest Rodent

My appeal to you as a history book lover is this – if you like our unique Civil War stories accompanied by numerous images and specially designed maps then please purchase our author signed first edition books from the Angle Valley Press website. We have always given Free Shipping/Handling for mail and website orders. Also, please spread the word to other Civil War aficionados and get them to visit our web page and get them to “like” our Angle Valley Press Facebook page. Let me thank you in advance for your support and your loyalty and know that we will be working to continue to bring you outstanding history in 2014. Our website will be hosting a Special Christmas sale that will begin on December 1.

In the meantime, enjoy the upcoming Thanksgiving and Christmas season and I hope that you and your families will be blessed with much joy.

Museum of the Confederacy Merger with American Civil War Center??????

Museum of the Confederacy Merger with American Civil War Center??????

By John Fox

Yes, I ended this headline with multiple question marks. As a longtime member and supporter of the Museum of the Confederacy [MOC] I have many concerns over the merger with The American Civil War Center at Historic Tredegar [ACWC]. Why has the behind the scenes maneuvering by the leadership at both institutions been conducted in secret? In fact, last July when rumors surfaced that a merger would happen, the MOC/President, Waite Rawls, stated that no merger would take place. Rawls indicated that there would only be additional collaboration on programs. That has turned out to be untrue and the leadership at both places knew that last summer. One reason this great country of ours has such a leadership crisis right now is because leaders from the White House down to the local level have no problem telling a lie as long as it serves their own purposes and allows them to get the end result that they want.

I have questions about the splitting up of the MOC’s vast collection of artifacts and archival material. Apparently, the artifacts [uniforms, flags, weapons etc] will go into a proposed $30 million museum to be built next to the current ACWC site on the James River. The vast archival material [manuscripts, letters, books etc] will be housed at the Virginia Historical Society several miles away. The MOC was founded in 1890 and through the years thousands of Southern families donated memorabilia to the collections. Is the memory and trust of these families going to be “preserved” in this merger? Is the true story of the Confederate soldier and why he fought going to be “preserved” too?

How is the combined collection at the new entity going to be interpreted or “reinterpreted”? Seekers of historical truth are frankly tired of being drowned by the Politically Correct [PC] wave that continues to wash over this country. As a native-born Richmonder, I can testify that certain elements are continually trying to sweep anything Confederate out of the city and into the James River. Is this merger another attempt to do that?

Focus groups will be formed to invent a new name for the combined museum. Does anybody believe that “Confederacy” will remain in the new name? BTW, I am not a fan of focus groups because they are too often used as political cover by people who call themselves leaders.

A huge amount of money has been raised recently by the ACWC. Most non-profits are struggling to raise funds now and I am very curious to see where all the ACWC $$$$ came from. Would the ACWC open its donor list so that the public can see what companies and organizations have written big checks? Is it possible that a left-leaning group hoping to rid Richmond of the Museum of the Confederacy is fronting this merger so that they can influence the “reinterpretation” of the MOC’s massive collection?

I know that most longtime MOC members would like to see these questions answered in a truthful way with no spin.  

Civil War Book and Author Blog

Civil War Book and Author Blog

Andrew Wagenhoffer’s Civil War Book and Author Blog is a a good spot for serious Civil War enthusiasts to learn about the newest books just coming off the press. Because so many books are being published on the CW it helps to be able to read an impartial review written by somebody who is knowledgeable about the period from 1861-1865. The CWBA recently posted a review of John Fox’s newest book, Stuart’s Finest Hour: The Ride Around McClellan, June 1862. Click on the link above to read this review. Mr. Wagenhoffer raised several questions about the book in his review and below is John Fox’s response [originally posted back on the CWBA website]  to some of the questions which we thought our web visitors might be interested in reading.

 

Drew, Thank you for your time spent reading and then reviewing my newest book Stuarts Finest Hour: The Ride Around McClellan, June 1862. You did a thorough assessment. One of your sentences really summed up several great qualities of Jeb Stuart: “Stuart himself was an active leader, keeping his command firmly in hand and not panicking in difficult situations.” Stuart was loved and respected because he led from the front and would not send his men anywhere that he would not go too. But more importantly, you noted that he did not panic when in a “tight spot.” As a former soldier, I can vouch that you want a commander like that leading you into the unknown.

I also liked your noting that Stuart’s most serious opponent turned out to be not the Union army but the flooded Chickahominy River. However, what I wanted to convey to the reader was that Stuart’s men had no way to know about the slowness or the ineptitude of the Federal pursuit. When the Southern column pushed beyond Old Church they expected to get hit at any moment and the drama and stress of that fear really played out when Stuart’s tired men found themselves stopped by a swollen Chickahominy River and no easy way across.

Stuart knew how desperate things might have been. Two years later, just before his mortal wounding at Yellow Tavern, he noted to Captain John Esten Cooke that he considered the 1862 Chickahominy Raid “was the most dangerous of all my expeditions, if I had not succeeded in crossing the Chickahominy, I would have been ruined, as there was no way of getting out.”

Some consider Stuart’s move irresponsible, and you noted that I outlined both sides of the Old Church argument – whether to retrace his column’s route or do the really unexpected and push deeper behind enemy lines and cross the Chickahominy River and loop around the entire Union army. He of course elected to make the flamboyant move to cross the Chickahominy River, but he would not have done this without reassurances from New Kent County scouts [3rd Va. Cav] that the column could cross at Christian’s Ford or they could rebuild the burned Forge Bridge.

Hanover County grave site of 9th Virginia Cavalry's Captain William Latane

Hanover County grave site of 9th Virginia Cavalry’s Captain William Latane

The editor and I had difficulty deciding what to do with the side-story that surrounded the death and burial of Captain William Latane. We finally elected to pull the chapter on the burial and place it in the appendices. Why? Well, it seemed to stop the drama and the action of the narrative between the Linney’s Corner fight and the subsequent attack on the 5th U. S. Cavalry’s camp at Old Church and the subsequent big decisions that needed to be made by both Jeb Stuart and Philip St. George Cooke.

You also wondered why I did not put in the John Thompson poem or the William Washington painting about “The Burial of Latane.” I decided that I wanted the focus of the book to be the cavalry raid from both Union and Confederate perspectives and the resulting fame that it brought to Jeb Stuart and the demise of his father-in-law’s military career. The Thompson 1862 poem and the 1864 painting by Washington certainly made the world aware of the heroic captain but they did not add anything to the facts of the raid which is why I did not include them in the book.

Horace Mewborn’s excellent 1998 Blue & Gray article was the blueprint that I used for my book. You are correct that this issue’s General’s Tour is an excellent feature, but my appendix does note that the route of the first day [June 12] I believe is wrong. Horace is not to be faulted as he used the “accepted” route that was established in 1956. My appendix outlines the slight change to that route.

Thank you for giving me the opportunity to answer some questions about this book.

Historic Elmwood Cemetery at Shepherdstown, WV

Historic Elmwood Cemetery at Shepherdstown, WV

By John Fox

I recently visited historic Shepherdstown, West Virginia with my wife and my parents. The town sits high above a picturesque curve on the Potomac River. A modern bridge spans the river just upstream from the stone abutments of a destroyed Civil War era bridge that forced troops from both sides to wade the stream at Boteler’s Ford [Pack Horse Ford]. We had a great lunch at the Bavarian Inn and clearly visible across the river from our table was the red-brick boyhood home of Colonel Henry Kyd Douglas. Douglas worked on the staff of numerous Confederate generals but most famously he served on Stonewall Jackson’s staff and he later wrote I Rode with Stonewall which wasn’t published until 1940, thirty-seven years after his death.

Confederate Monument at Elmwood Cemetery, Shepherdstown WV

Confederate Monument at Elmwood Cemetery, Shepherdstown WV

This Panhandle area of West Virginia was part of Virginia until 1863. A group of Unionists, unhappy with the seceded Virginia government at Richmond, decided to secede from the Old Dominion. Though their effort was unconstitutional, the move was supported by President Abraham Lincoln who strangely had decided two years before to launch a war against the Southern states because of their own secession. Political expediency at its finest!

When I began research for my newest book, Stuart’s Finest Hour, which details the cavalry raid that made  Jeb Stuart famous, I discovered that most of the men who came from Company F, 1st Virginia Cavalry hailed from the area around Shepherdstown. Many of these men accompanied Stuart on the dramatic three day ride that circled the entire Union army east of Richmond in June 1862. Two 1st Virginia troopers who had a big impact on the success of Stuart’s mission are buried in Shepherdstown’s Elmwood Cemetery.

Captain Redmond Burke was born in Ireland in 1816 which would make him forty-six years old when he served as a scout on Stuart’s mission to recon the right flank of George McClellan’s Army of the Potomac. Stuart was so happy to have Burke join his staff in December 1861 that he wrote, “Redmond Burke rode up & reported for duty yesterday – we have made a great glorification over him. He had many narrow escapes & has a wonderful set of yarns to tell.” Burke’s scouting abilities proved invaluable, but perhaps the most important skill that the Irish stone cutter brought to the mission was his bridge building skills as he and Corporal William Henry Hagan led a team that resurrected a burned Chickahominy River bridge early on June 14, 1862. Seemingly trapped, Stuart’s 1200 tired and anxious cavalrymen waited to cross the rain-swollen river expecting all the while to hear gunshots from approaching Union cavalry.

Early in the war, Stuart discovered Hagan’s talent for scrounging needed equipment and food items and appointed him to be in charge of the cavalry staff escort, which ensured that he would always be close. The large hairy man continued to excel and after the June 1862 raid he was promoted to a lieutenant’s position as the staff commissary and then the quartermaster.

Grave of Captain Redmond Burke, 1st Virginia Cavalry & Stuart staff officer

Grave of Captain Redmond Burke, 1st Virginia Cavalry & Stuart staff officer

The bodies of Burke and Hagan lie near each other next to the Confederate section in Elmwood Cemetery. Burke came home to visit family and was ambushed by Union troops on November 24, 1862. Hagan, who lived in Shepherdstown as a young man, survived the war and was buried here when he died in 1895.

However, the most visited grave along the green-grassed hill of this historic spot is the grave of Colonel Douglas. When the war ended he returned to Shepherdstown only to be arrested for having his photograph taken in his Confederate uniform. This “violation” cost him three months at Fort Delaware military prison. He later practiced law in Winchester, Virginia and then moved his practice to Hagerstown, Maryland where he died of tuberculosis in 1903.

The Elmwood Cemetery is open daily and it sits on the south side of Shepherdstown on Kearneysville Pike [Rt. 480]. 

Angle Valley Press to Form History Book Marketing Partnership With Savas Beatie

Angle Valley Press to Form History Book Marketing Partnership With Savas Beatie

 

 

Savas Beatie to Sell Angle Valley Press Titles

 

El Dorado Hills, CA, October 17, 2013

 Savas Beatie is pleased to announce that it has finalized an agreement with Angle Valley Press to distribute its titles into non-book trade accounts within the United States and Canada.

 Savas Beatie, a leader in the independent military and general history book publishing industry, has produced many award-winning titles and national book club selections. One of the company’s strong suits has been its ability to open and maintain a vibrant revenue stream outside the general book trade. In addition to bulk specialty sales, the company has been especially successful establishing relationships with state and national park sites, gift shops, museum stores, and other related outlets. This ability has been especially important given the weak general economy and shuttering of Borders, Inc.

 Angle Valley Press of Winchester, Virginia, is an independent craft publisher of unique award-winning books on the Civil War and is well known to students and buffs of the conflict.

 “We have long respected what John Fox does at Angle Valley, and his books are always well-received by the community,” explains Managing Director Theodore P. Savas. “This agreement allows each of us to focus on our strengths. This broadens the title selection Savas Beatie can offer outside the book trade, and John can focus more of his attention on creating additional titles for sale.”

 Angle Valley Press’s publisher, John Fox, is also looking forward to the partnership. “This indeed is a win/win for both of us, and allows me to focus on two exciting new titles we have planned for release soon. I am very pleased to be working with a dynamic and creative company like Savas Beatie.”

About Savas Beatie   Savas Beatie logo

 Savas Beatie LLC is a leading independent military and general history publishing company. The company address is 989 Governor Drive, Suite 102, El Dorado Hills, CA, 95762. For more info please contact Sarah Keeney at 916-941-6896 or visit them on the web at  www.savasbeatie.com

 

About Angle Valley Press

Angle Valley Press is an independent craft publisher of unique award-winning books on the War Between the States. The company address is P.O. Box 4098, Winchester, VA, 22604. For more information please contact John Fox at 540-539-1260 or visit  www.anglevalleypress.com                                                                                                                                                         angle valley press logo

Visit to North-South Skirmish Association Competition at Ft. Shenandoah

Visit to North-South Skirmish Association Competition at Ft. Shenandoah

Posted by John Fox:

I made my first visit to the North-South Skirmish Association meet on Friday at Fort Shenandoah about ten miles northwest of Winchester. The competitive shooting matches with Civil War era weapons brought teams of reenactors plus history fans from far and wide. The five-day competition attracted some 2,000 competitors and about 10,000 spectators according to a Winchester Star article [10/7/13] by staff writer Matt Armstrong.

The N-SSA has meets twice a year, in May and October. Because of my numerous family, writing and airline commitments I had never attended any of these events until last Friday. Thanks to an invitation from Carole Miller, manager of Winchester’s Old Court House Civil War Museum, I joined her next to sutlers row. A number of folks stopped by to talk about books and the conversation consistently turned toward the absurd Government shutdown. The conservative flavor of the event was thick in the air, like the gunsmoke. A glance across the road at the numerous vendors hawking guns and ammo, plus NRA and various anti-government stickers on vehicles, made me ponder how many undercover ATF agents might be in the crowd. When I mentioned this to Carole Miller she admonished me with a stern look to keep my voice down as she pointed skyward. “The drones might hear you,” she said. This brought on something else to ponder amidst the beautiful warm Shenandoah Valley afternoon.

Mortar Competition at N-SSA

Mortar Competition at N-SSA

Government drones and agents aside, at the end of the day I realized how thankful I am that so many citizens still value the history of our great country. Many of them are willing to take time off from work and to travel long distances to celebrate their passion. It was a lot of fun to talk with many of them. Thanks especially go out to Jim, the archaeologist from Atlanta; several other Georgians from Butts County, Georgia; Mike from Botetourt County, VA who was accompanied by his 15-year-old daughter plus the numerous guys I met from Pittsburgh. I will look forward to attending another great N-SSA event again next year.